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《汉谟拉比法典》的详细条款


2011/08/05
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暴雨过后,路旁的黑心菊只剩下黑心,菊没了。

这是个疯狂的夏季,耳闻目睹的新闻,无论远近,没有一件是值得喜悦的,人生突然间变得一点都不美好了。前两天听说本地还震了两次,虽然那天我因为和狗狗在广场玩得太投入没感觉到,但是后怕的压力还是催生出抑郁情绪。主要是,家中所有讲汉语的,都不同意我到外面搭帐篷住,讲猫语的情绪再高涨都不占压倒性优势。

情绪低落的时候,绝对治愈法是尽量不说话,静静的工作、读书。这两天在读《世界史》,是冰心、吴文藻和费孝通的译本。书中提到诞生于古巴比伦时代的《汉谟拉比法典》,很想知道它里面究竟都写了些什么?就去谷歌搜百科。汉谟拉比法典正文共有282条,内容包括诉讼程序、保护私产、租佃、债务、高利贷和婚姻家庭等。它刻在一根高2.25米,上周长1.65米,底部周长1.90米的黑色玄武岩柱上,共3500行。

汉谟拉比法典将人分为三种等级:

1.有公民权的自由民
2.无公民权的自由民
3.奴隶
3.1.王室奴隶
3.2.自由民所属奴隶
3.3公民私人奴隶

详细条款站在现代人的角度看来,实属严刑峻法。但,这是人类秩序的初始。故,这里只做收录,不加评论。

以下文字,来源于百度百科:
6. If anyone steal the property of a temple or of the court, he shall be put to death, and also the one who receives the stolen goods from him shall be put to death.
6.任何一个人窃取寺庙或者皇宫的财产,他将被处以死刑,而从他那里获得到赃物的人也一并处以死刑。

7. If anyone buy from the son or the slave of another man, without witnesses or a contract, silver or gold, a male or female slave, an ox or a sheep, an ass or anything, or if he take it in charge, he is considered a thief and shall be put to death.
7.任何一个人购买别人的儿子或者是奴隶,却没有见证人或者合约,白银或者黄金,男性或者女性的奴隶,公牛或者羊,如果他做出了这些举动,他将被当作扒手看待并处以死刑。

8. If anyone steal cattle or sheep, or an ass, or a pig, or a goat, if it belong to a god or to the court, the thief shall pay thirty-fold therefore; if they belonged to a freed man of the king, he shall pay ten-fold; if the thief has nothing with which to pay, he shall be put to death.
8.任何一个去偷牛、绵羊、猪、山羊的人,如果它属于神或者属于皇宫,这个扒手将为此付赔上三十倍的代价;如果他们属于国王的自由民,他只需付十倍的代价;如果这个扒手没有任何东西可以付款,他将被处以死刑。

14. If anyone steal the minor son of another, he shall be put to death.
14.任何一个偷走另一人儿子的人,他将被处以死刑。

15. If anyone take a male or female slave of the court, or a male or female slave of a freed man, outside the city gates, he shall be put to death.
15.如果任何一个人将(皇宫里的)男性或女性奴隶带出皇宫外,或者将自由民男性或者女性的奴隶带到城门外,他将被处以死刑。

18. If the slave will not give the name of the master, the finder shall bring him to the palace; a further investigation must follow, and the slave shall be returned to his master.
18.如果这个奴隶说不出主人的名字,发现者必须把他带到宫殿; 并做进一步的调查,并且这个奴隶将被遣返给他的主人。

19. If he hold the slaves in his house, and they are caught there, he shall be put to death.
19.如果他把这些奴隶窝藏他的房子里,而他们被人抓获,他将被处以死刑。

20. If the slave that he caught run away from him, then shall he swear to the owners of the slave, and he is free of all blame.
20.如果那些被他抓获的奴隶从他那里逃跑了,而他能够向奴隶所有者发誓属实,他就能够摆脱所有责备。

21. If anyone break a hole into a house (break-in to steal), he shall be put to death before that hole and be buried.
21.如果打破房子利用裂缝强行进入住宅偷窃,他必须在那个洞前处以死刑和埋葬。

22. If anyone is committing a robbery and is caught, then he shall be put to death.
22.如果任何人成了抢劫者并且被人抓住,则他将被处以死刑。

29. If his son is still young, and cannot take possession, a third of the field and garden shall be given to his mother, and she shall bring him up.
29.如果他的儿子仍然年轻,无法拥有任何物品,他的母亲可以得到田地和花园的三分之一,而且她并须将他扶养成人。

51. If he have no money to repay, then he shall pay in corn or sesame in place of the money as rent for what he received from the merchant, according to the royal tariff.
51.根据皇家关税,如果他没有钱偿还,则他必须利用小麦或者芝麻来代替从商人那里得到的作租金的钱。

54. If he be not able to replace the corn, then he and his possessions shall be divided among the farmers whose corn he has flooded.
54.如果他不能偿还这些小麦,就将他和他的财产都分发给遭受水灾之苦的其他农民。

55. If anyone open his ditches to water his crop, but is careless, and the water flood the field of his neighbor, then he shall pay his neighbor corn for his loss.
55.如果任何一个人利用开挖沟渠以浇灌他的收成,但是不小心淹没了他邻居的田地,则他将赔偿邻居小麦作为损失。

61. If the gardener has not completed the planting of the field, leaving one part unused, this shall be assigned to him as his.
61.如果一个园丁没能完成这个田地的播种栽种,全都归因为他的所作所为。

109. If conspirators meet in the house of a tavern-keeper, and these conspirators are not captured and delivered to the court, the tavern-keeper shall be put to death.
109.如果在客栈管理人的房子中碰到阴谋者,而这些阴谋者没有被捕获和送到皇宫,客栈管理人将被处以死刑。

110. If a "sister of a god" open a tavern, or enter a tavern to drink, then shall this woman be burned to death.
110.如果“神的姊妹”开酒店,或者进入酒店喝酒,则这个女人将被烧死。

130. If a man violate the wife (betrothed or child-wife) of another man, who has never known a man, and still lives in her father's house, and sleep with her and be surprised, this man shall be put to death, but the wife is blameless.
130.如果男人强迫另一个男人的未婚妻(这个女子仍是处女且居住在她父亲的家中)和他发生性关系,被逮捕后,这个男人将被处以死刑,但是,这个妻子可以全然不受责备。

135. If a man be taken prisoner in war and there be no sustenance in his house and his wife go to another house and bear children; and if later her husband return and come to his home, then this wife shall return to her husband, but the children follow their father.
135.如果男人在战争中被俘而他的房子中没有食物,而他的妻子改嫁并生下小孩,如果之后她的原夫回到家,这个妻子将回到她原来的丈夫身边,但是,孩子们跟随他们(各自)的亲生父亲。

142. If a woman quarrel with her husband, and say: "You are not congenial to me." Therefore reasons for her prejudice must be presented. If she is guiltless, and there is no fault on her part, but he leaves and neglects her, then no guilt attaches to this woman, she shall take her dowry and go back to her father's house.
142.如果一个女人与她的丈夫争吵,并且说:“你对我很不好。”必须提供她的偏见原因。如果她是没有犯罪的,而在她的部分上没有错误,但是他离开和忽视她,则这女人没有任何罪则,她将拿回她的嫁妆和回到她父亲的家。

143. If she is not innocent, but leaves her husband, and ruins her house, neglecting her husband, this woman shall be cast in to the water.
143.如果她不清白,但是,离开她的丈夫,毁灭她的家,忽视她的丈夫,她将被丢到水里面。

144. If a man take a wife and this woman give her husband a maid-servant, and she bear him children, but this man wishes to take another wife, this shall not be permitted to him; he shall not take a second wife.
144.如果男人娶了个妻子,这个女人为她的丈夫带来陪嫁女仆,并为他生养孩子,那么这个男人如要另一个妻子是不允许的;他不应娶第二个妻子。

145. If a man take a wife, and she bear him no children, and he intend to take another wife: if he take this second wife, and bring her into the house, this second wife shall not be allowed equality with his wife.
145.如果男人娶妻,她却没为他生孩子,而他想娶第二个妻子,当他打算娶另一个妻子,并带她回家,这第二个妻子将不被承认具有与第一个妻子的平等性。

147. If she have not borne him children, then her mistress may sell her for money.
147.如果她没为他生育孩子们,则她的女主人可以用钱卖掉她。

149. If this woman does not wish to remain in her husband's house, then he shall compensate her for the dowry that she brought with her from her father's house, and she may go.
149.如果这个女人不想要留在她丈夫的房子中,则他必须补偿她从父亲的家族那里带来的嫁妆给她,而她可以回去。

150. If a man give his wife a field, garden, and house and a deed there for, if then after the death of her husband the sons raise no claim, then the mother may bequeath all to one of her sons whom she prefers, and need leave nothing to his brothers.
150.如果男人给予她的妻子田地,花园,和房子,则当她的丈夫死后,儿子若不提出要求,则母亲可以把她的财产遗留给她喜欢的那个儿子,且不需要留下任何东西给他的兄弟。

153. If the wife of one man on account of another man has their mates ( her husband and the other man's wife) murdered, both of them shall be impaled.
153.如果一个有夫之妇和一个有妇之夫共谋杀害他们的伴侣(她的丈夫和他的妻子),他们两个人将被刺穿。

154. If a man be guilty of incest with his daughter, he shall be driven from the place (exiled).
154.如果一个男人对他的女儿犯了乱伦罪,他将从这个地方被流放。

155. If a man betroth a girl to his son, and his son have intercourse with her, but he (the father) afterward defile her, and be surprised, then he shall be bound and cast into the water (drowned).
155.如果一个男人为他的儿子订了一门亲事,且他的儿子已经见过女方,但是,他这个父亲却染指他的儿媳,如被捕则他会被五花大绑并扔进水中淹死。

157. If anyone be guilty of incest with his mother after his father, both shall be burned.
157.如果任何人在他的父亲死后与他的母亲乱伦,二人将被烧死。

186. If a man adopt a son, and if after he has taken him, he injure his foster father and mother, then this adopted son shall return to his father's house.
186.如果一个男人领养了一个儿子,却因为这样的收养会伤害到他自己的养父和养母,则这个养子将回到他的原来的家庭。

192. If a son of a paramour or a prostitute say to his adoptive father or mother: "You are not my father, or my mother." His tongue shall be cut off.
192.如果情妇或者妓女的儿子对他养父或者养母说:“你(们)不是我的父亲,或者我的母亲。”将割掉他的舌头。

193. If the son of a paramour or a prostitute desire his father's house, and desert his adoptive father and adoptive mother, and goes to his father's house, then shall his eye be put out.
193.如果情妇或者妓女的儿子希望回到原来的家庭,并且抛弃他的养父亲和养母,则将挖出他的眼睛。

195. If a son strike his father, his hands shall be hewn off.
195.如果一个儿子打他的父亲,他的手将被砍断。

196. If a man put out the eye of another man, his eye shall be put out.
196.如果一个人挖出了另一个人的眼睛,他的眼睛也该被挖出来。

197. If he break another man's bone, his bone shall be broken.
197.如果他打碎另一个人的骨头,将打碎他的骨头。

199. If he put out the eye of a man's slave, or break the bone of a man's slave, he shall pay one-half of its value.
199.如果他挖出了奴隶的眼睛,或者打碎奴隶的骨头,他将付它(这奴隶)身价的二分之一。

200. If a man knock out the teeth of his equal, his teeth shall be knocked out.
200.如果一个人击落他的牙齿,他的牙齿也该被同等的打掉。

218. If a physician makes a large incision with the operating knife, and kill him, or open a tumor with the operating knife, and cut out the eye, his hands shall be cut off.
218.如果内科医生用刀子进行大切割手术,使病人因此致死,或者利用手术刀开肿瘤,割掉了病人的眼睛,那么他的手将被砍断。

219. If a physician makes a large incision in the slave of a freed man, and kill him, he shall replace the slave with another slave.
219.如果内科医生在自由人的奴隶的身体里动切割手术,并令其致死,他将必须用另一个奴隶代替这个奴隶。

220. If he had opened a tumor with the operating knife, and put out his eye, he shall pay half his value.
220.如果他用手术刀开了肿瘤,并且挖出了他的眼睛,他将付他的一半价值。

244. If anyone hire an ox or an ass, and a lion kill it in the field, the loss is upon its owner.
244.如果任何一个人租借公牛或者驴子,然而狮子却在这个田地杀死它们,它们的所有者自担损失。

245. If anyone hire oxen, and kill them by bad treatment or blows, he shall compensate the owner, oxen for oxen.
245.如果任何一个人租用牛,却苛待这些牛致死,他将补偿这个所有者的牛。

246. If a man hire an ox, and he break its leg or cut the ligament of its neck, he shall compensate the owner with ox for ox.
246.如果有人租借公牛,并且折断它的腿或者切断它脖子的韧带,他将用公牛赔偿这个所有者。

247. If anyone hire an ox, and put out its eyes, he shall pay the owner one-half of its value.
247.如果任何一个人租借公牛,并且挖出了它的眼睛,他将付这个所有者牛价的二分之一。

249. If anyone hire an ox, and God strike it that it die, the man who hired it shall swear by God and be considered guiltless.
249.如果任何一个租借公牛,而神使这头牛死亡,租借公牛的人必须对神发誓以免除罪责。

282. If a slave say to his master: "You are not my master." If they convict him his master shall cut off his ear.
282.如果奴隶对他的主人说:“你们不是我的主人。”他们的主人将可以割掉他的耳朵。


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